Unleashing Potential in Carbonate Reservoirs

Characterizing Carbonate Reservoirs

Carbonate rocks (i.e. limestone, dolomite) are deposited and formed in subaqueous environments through various chemical and biological processes. As a result, they exhibit a wide array of different structures and textures that give rise to highly heterogeneous deposits. Due to their highly chemically reactive composition, carbonate rocks undergo extensive chemical, physical, and textural changes during burial and diagenesis. For this reason, carbonates are amongst some of the most challenging rocks to characterize in the subsurface.

Carbonate rocks are a vitally important component of today’s energy sector, with approximately 60% of the world’s oil and 40% of the world’s gas reserves held in such reservoir types. In many cases, these reservoirs exhibit marked vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by permeability barriers, natural fractures, and complex mineralogical and porosity distributions. These variations can be particularly challenging to geoscientists and engineers responsible for performing detailed and effective exploration, appraisal, field development, and production programs and strategies.

Improving models to predict performance in heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs

Well and Seismic Interpretation
Identify and characterize distinct rock formations to reconstruct the subsurface history and identify potential reservoirs and formations of interest.
Rapidly evaluate carbonate sequences
  • Execute probabilistic workflows that quantify carbonate rock mineralogical and textural variations and uncertainties
  • Determine fracture characteristics and relation to carbonate facies using image logs
  • Identify and classify productive facies through comprehensive poro-perm analysis
Interpret carbonates with confidence
  • Predict seismic amplitude behaviors and rock properties using sophisticated petrophysical and carbonate rock physics models
  • Calibrate well and seismic data using advanced methods for conventional and broadband seismic datasets
  • Improve geological understanding by modeling the impact of carbonate facies and fractures on the seismic response
  • Incorporate core analysis into the petrophysical workflow for accurate prediction of permeability and its relationship with porosity
Deliver greater value from legacy and modern seismic and reveal geology
  • Enhance amplitude fidelity and thin layer detection through comprehensive seismic data conditioning workflows
  • Minimize acquisition and processing artifacts to reveal internal carbonate architectures
  • Leverage azimuthal and multi-component data to identify areas and zones of potential fracturing and associated permeability
Build the geological framework and gain subsurface insights
  • Reduce time spent on manual structural interpretation using automated fault extraction workflows to rapidly identify structural framework
  • Confidently extract subtle carbonate features and internal variability by removing the structure and revealing the chronostratigraphic history of the carbonate bodies
  • Identify and extract fracture planes and correlate to well based fracture interpretations
Estimate in place rock and net pore volumes
  • Execute volumetric calculations on identified structures
  • Rank features according to gross rock volume
Reservoir Characterization

Reveal reservoir insights utilizing state-of-the-art techniques, employing seismic and well data to evaluate heterogeneous carbonate formations.

Communicate effectively across disciplines
  • Establish relationships between seismic and layer based geological and rock properties of interest
  • Derive and work with 3D/4D petrophysical properties through calibrated carbonate specific rock physics transforms
Optimize seismic data for advanced predictive workflows
  • Extract maximum value from expensive seismic datasets through conditioning of multi-component and azimuthal seismic for fractures and anisotropy
  • Identify problem areas fast using novel 2D, 3D, and 4D seismic quality control algorithms and workflows
  • Remove noise and extract high-quality textural features for use in reservoir quality assessment
Improve drilling and development decisions with advanced well and seismic integration technologies
  • Screen regional play fairways using robust relative and deterministic inversion workflows that deliver answers fast
  • Identify carbonate depositional environments and play fairways, and rank leads and prospects using Bayesian probabilistic analysis
  • Understand enhanced flow potential using azimuthal AVO and anisotropic inversion workflows for fracture identification and modeling
  • Extract sub-seismic resolution information that drives improved understanding of vertical and lateral heterogeneities and potential flow barriers, non-permeable streaks, and compartments
  • Integrate micro-seismic data to identify and assess the correlation between a fracking program and a well’s productivity
  • Construct multiple scenarios and geostatistical realizations that deliver detailed models and uncertainties ready for engineering and simulation workflows
Well Targeting and Trajectory Planning

Strategically plan well programs to maximize production rates and enhance field efficiencies.

Identify drilling targets
  • Evaluate exploration, appraisal, production, and injection wells based on maximum porosity, permeability, reservoir connectivity, and drainage potential
  • Mitigate against anomolous pressure zones in evaporitic sequences and areas with mechanical instability
  • Detect and avoid drilling hazards related to thin hard streaks
Optimize well trajectories
  • High fidelity thin layer detection and resolution ensures highly accurate geosteering design
  • Increase the contact area with the reservoir zones in complex intervals
  • Improve well life expectancy and production rates while avoiding water cuts by identifying potential barriers and baffles within the reservoir section
Fine-tune well economics
  • Confirm each well's contribution is optimized without over draining the reservoir prematurely
  • Optimize bit selection by delivering to engineering the calibrated 1D well geological and elastic property prognoses and uncertainties
  • Avoid losses with accurate predictions of fracture distributions

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